Università Bocconi

Classic Catalog

Copyright as it affects faculty

As authors, university faculty are not always aware that when they produce a piece of research, they hold the moral and economic rights. The subsequent exclusive transfer of their economic rights (the moral rights are inalienable) to publishers through a publishing contract creates a number of constraints. For example, it prejudices the free use of the work for teaching purposes: the placement in a digital archive of lecture notes comprising texts by other authors assumes that permission has been sought from the copyright holder, which is usually the publisher, etc.
    1. How to photocopy or scan parts of paper books and journals

One photocopy only can be made of documents considered useful for individual study without asking permission to the copyright holder, on the conditions set out below which apply if the works are protected, that is, covered by copyright:

- journals: one article, up to a limit of 15% of the total number of pages in the journal
- books: one chapter, up to a limit of 15% of the total number of pages in the book
- working paper: 15 %

These are considered exceptions provided for by law and/or by agreement with assignees under domestic law, since one of the principles of copyright is that reproduction of a protected work is an act requiring the authorisation of the copyright holder.

Without authorization does not mean without compensation to the copyright holder. To allow photocopies within said limits of protected works, Universities have signed an agreement with the SIAE (Italian Royalties Collection Society) and authors and editors associations. As a result, they pay a flat rate of “fair compensation”, which is subsequently distributed to authors and editors.

Scanning of a text cannot be compared to photocopies, and is therefore not an exception. In order to makes scans, explicit authorization must be obtained from the copyright holders (authors and/or editors), individually or through the collective rights management society. The latter is the method used by the Bocconi Library to reproduce the parts of works in digital form included in Course Reserves.
Last update: 20/1/2011